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Modules are very useful for students if they are developed based on student characteristics for entrepreneurship courses in the new normal era. For this reason, the objective of this study was to describe the development of STEM-based chemistry learning module based on the characteristics of chemistry students in the new normal era for the entrepreneurship course. The topic of entrepreneurship discussed in this study was goat weight gain. The subjects of this study were the fifth semester students of Chemistry Education. The research method was descriptive. The data were triangulated based on the results of interview, documentation, and questionnaire. The questionnaire was valid with a reliability coefficient of 0.763, greater than the minimum limit of 0.600. The results showed that the students strongly agreed to like to read (35,7%), motivated (35,7), liked to search the internet (78,57%) and 78.57% of them studied the topic of gaining the weight of peanut goats by reading module, and 82.14% of them liked partnership in goat entrepreneurship. The conclusion is that the chemistry learning module has been developed for the entrepreneurship course, and the module is based on student characteristics and STEM, and is characterized by chemistry, which fulfill the research objectives.
Optimising the quality of the existing bone grafting materials and looking for novel and better bone-substitute materials is crucial in improving the clinical outcome. Experimental testing of various grafting materials requires the pre-establishment of a proper biological model to conduct experimental studies and evaluate the clinical effect with respect to osteogenesis and healing. Animal models with simulated alveolar clefts are considered appropriate as an experimental model for testing of clinical interventions. Several animal models have been utilized for testing of alveolar cleft grafting materials including mice, rats, rabbits, cats, dogs, swines, goats, sheep and monkeys [4, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24].
Animals used in biomaterial bone research include small animals, such as mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits, and large animal category mostly goats, dogs, and primates [31,32,33]. Rodent models have inherent limitations when compared to larger models, including rabbits. Rodents have smaller long-bones, more fragile cortex, and do not show Haversian-type remodeling in the cortex . Rabbits are considered the largest animals in the small animals category, and hence less susceptible to elaborate and exhaustive additional clearance requirements usually implemented by the central ethical committees. They are non-aggressive, easy to observe, have quicker vital capacity in terms of gestation and maturity, and can be locally bread [31,32,33]. The histology of bone in rabbits is not quite similar to bone in humans, and composes of dense Haversian bone and layers primarily vascular longitudinal canals [31,32,33]. However, similarities in bone mineral density and fracture toughness between rabbits and human have been reported in the literature [32,33,34]. An essential issue with rabbits that they express rapid skeletal metabolism and increased bone turnover rate, mostly cortical remodeling when compared to primates and some rodents [31,32,33]. To properly simulate human in vivo environment, the rabbit model is an appropriate animal model for alveolar cleft experimental studies because the rabbit is reproducible, accurate, easy to house and handle, relatively easily anaesthetised, provides large enough area for testing and properly sized mammalian that can bear the trauma of surgery [32, 33].
Several models have been proposed as alveolar cleft model for testing of tissue-engineered bone replacement material. These ranging from mice, rats, rabbits, cats, dogs, swines, goats, sheep and monkeys [4, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24]. Prior description on rats models were able to create defects simulating alveolar defects because of their ease of handling and cost effectiveness, however, these defects tend to be significantly smaller in volume than human alveolar defects making it technically challenging to properly perform the grafting testing procedure [13, 17, 18, 21, 24]. 041b061a72